And so, with the end of the football season, the newspapers have once again descended into transfer-window madness. Rather than jetting off to a Caribbean island like the footballers they report upon, the unlucky sporting journalists must be chained to their desks over the summer, and expected to maintain a similar output as the height of the season. And so we have crazy speculation, over-analysis of any comment or action by a player – “someone that looked a bit like Carlos Tevez spotted in estate agent in Moldgreen; move to Huddersfield Town imminent” – and the daily pledges of loyalty from players to clubs they will immediately stab in the back as soon as the money is right.

I can’t really complain though – withdrawal symptoms from the football season have meant I consume all this crap nearly religiously. And then go on forums to discuss it. And then write blogposts criticising it. Whereas normally I will only really follow the Old Firm in Scotland and the Big 4 in England, due to the summer madness I’ve been checking out transfers at home and abroad, including Stirling Albion’s revolutionary X-Factor style auditions for a new team. I think having any knowledge of the transfer process at Stirling Albion is a sure sign that you need to get a job.

This season is perhaps unique in that managers seem to have joined the carousel of activity. Mark Hughes and Alex McLeish gave their clubs two-fingers in the hope of chasing higher profile jobs; in McLeish’s case, a move from Birmingham to bitter rivals Aston Villa. Perhaps he misses the vitriol and venom of football in Glasgow, and is trying to engineer a similar level of hatred in Birmingham.

Whilst I now feel that I am an expert on transfer policy from the Midlands to Scottish minnow’s, I have been nowhere near as obsessed with the other important managerial announcement of the previous few weeks. After much deliberation, Ayman al-Zawahiri has been given the top job of al-Qaeda. al-Zawahiri spent many years as assistant manager to Osama bin Laden.

For a bunch of religious fanatics, the appointment can be criticised for lacking a certain amount of ‘razzle-dazzle’. Compare Wesley Sneijder’s perspective on who will employ him next season..

only God will decide where my future lies

… to the announcement from the Islamic fundamentalists…

The general command of al-Qa’ida, after completing consultations, decided that the sheikh doctor Abu Mohammed Ayman al-Zawahiri take the responsibility and be in charge of the group

I don’t normally praise al-Qaeda for realism or having a sense of perspective, but I think that, in comparison to the arrogant and farcical opinion of Wesley Sneijder, perhaps some praise is due. The statement from al-Qaeda also seems to reflect more planning and foresight than the managerial chaos at Villa Park stretching back to the start of last season when Martin O’Neill left in acrimonious circumstances.

So, how will al-Qaeda’s new appointment fare? Obviously, following Osama bin Laden, perhaps the most successful manager of al-Qaeda, gives him some big shoes to fill. Al-Qaeda supporters, in the face of recent setbacks, will be impatient for al-Zawahiri to deliver some instant successes. Whilst he has a very different style to bin Laden, seen as a much less charismatic and unifying figure, it is likely there will much tactical continuity with the bin Laden era. This continuity will be important to keep much of the faithful on side, but could be problematic; the world has moved on since the glory days of bin Laden, and without some major changes al-Qaeda could risk being stuck in the past, like the great Italian sides of the 1990’s who have struggled recently. This has been demonstrated most vividly in the Arab spring – fundamentalist Jihadism is no longer looked upon by the angry and disenfranchised youth as a solution to their problems. al-Zawahiri’s biggest challenge will be to maintain the unity of al-Qaeda, and to impose itself upon the Arab revolutions that are currently spreading like wildfire. Whether he can achieve this remains unknown, but will likely come down to which formation he picks; 4-4-2, 4-5-1 or the traditional al-Qaeda line-up of 9-1-1.

Florence Grindall is a sports enthusiast and member of the Huddersfield Feminst Collective

Although the recent comments made by two male Sky commentators regarding a female assistant referee were entirely obnoxious, they have offered up an opportunity to debate sexism within sport.  This is an under explored topic, presumably owing to the absence of a female presence within many sports spaces.  Andy Gray and Richard Keys were penalized after they questioned the competence of Sian Massey based solely on her gender; according to the two of them it is impossible for a woman to sufficiently appreciate the offside rule.  Cue former Sky presenter, and daughter of Liverpool manager Kenny Daglish, Kelly Cates to tweet,

“Phew am exhausted. Just read about something called ‘the offside rule’. Too much for my tiny brain. Must be damaged from nail polish fumes.” 

In fact, the pair seemed quite perturbed that a woman had entered the male football sanctum, and Gray has been fired after further footage of sexist behavior towards a female colleague came to light. There are only three female officials at the top level and the cynical sexism of Gray and Keys may indicate why.  Football clubs lack women in other authoritative capacities too; only five of the 20 Premier League clubs have female directors, and there are no female managers in the men’s game. West-Ham vice-chairman Karren Brady has spoken out against the sexism that exists in football, to which Keys and Gray responded,

 ‘See charming Karren Brady this morning complaining about sexism?’

 ‘yeah. Do me a favour, love.’

Even if women retreat to ‘women’s’ football their opportunities are limited as football at club level in this country is sorely underdeveloped.   Amazing then that at the last women’s World Cup in 2007 the England team reached the quarter finals (losing to the US in front of nearly 30,000 people, other matches achieved crowds of over 50,000).  While the women played they earned around £40 a day, compared to the £million contracts of their male counterparts who also reached the quarters in 2006.  The women’s England team was also quite successful when they reached the final of the UEFA Championship (or Euro 2009 as the kids say) losing to Germany 2-6.  The team has also qualified for this year’s World Cup.  Although these achievements were acknowledged they were generally hidden in the corner of newspaper pages or webpages saturated with news on the men’s domestic game. 

Sport remains male-dominated, women are ignored or derided, and as a result girls are put off taking up a sport at any level.  It’s not just footie were the achievements of women are ignored, in 2008 the England Women’s Cricket team held on to their Ashes title, and won the World Cup, and won the Twenty20 World Cup.  Captain Charlotte Edwards was awarded an MBE but there was little media coverage and most people remain unaware of the English success.  In fact, in what seems like a doubly cruel twist of fate, news that the women’s team has just lost this year’s Ashes will most certainly be pushed off the front pages by news of Keys and Gray sexism. 

It does seem that the best chance a woman has of getting her picture into the sports pages is to be the sex kitten girlfriend of an established male athlete; women wearing low cut tops at tournaments can just wait for the cameramen to find them/incessantly pan the camera over them.  Two years ago in July the British pair of Jo Jackson and Rebecca Adlington won medals in the 400 metre freestyle in the World Swimming Championships, The Metro offered them a small story at the bottom of the page, but gave pride of place to a story on Lewis Hamilton illustrated with a large picture of his pop star girlfriend Nicole Scherzinger.  And when Andies Murray and Roddick battled through the Wimbledon semi-final the London Lite paper offered a Battle of the Babes, dedicating a half page to a contest over which of their girlfriends was the most attractive.  Lovely. 

And female athletes who strive for years to achieve sporting excellence can rely on their talent being overlooked, as spectators, commentators, and journalists are blinded by their beauty.  The All England Club (where Wimbledon tennis lives) admitted to putting more attractive players on the center court, Spokesman Johnny Perkins said at the time ‘Good looks are a factor’.  And a couple of certain Sky commentators may be aggrieved to learn that tennis commentators often get away with demeaning women by repeatedly reducing them to their looks from describing matches as ‘very watchable’ (wink wink), to discussions over how to pronounce a foreign player’s name, ‘I just call her hot’. 

It may seem surprising then that many successful professional female athletes would actively seek the sex object role.  But in an environment where women are only acknowledged if they are photogenic it actually isn’t that surprising.  Fans of tennis will be hard pushed to Google a female tennis player without finding a naked, sexy, or bikini shot of her.  Former number one Ana Ivanovic seems to have topless photos floating around just about everywhere, whilst Maria Sharapova has earned most of her $millions off court from numerous endorsements not least her Sports Illustrated swim suit special. 

And everything Venus Williams has worn in the past two years is essentially unattractive underwear worn in public that she hopes will ‘bring sexy back to tennis’.  Why it is that tennis needs to be sexy remains undisclosed.  A new sport that has emerged in the US is already plenty sexy; Lingerie Football League.  Apparently it’s similar to regular American Football; only with lingerie clad beauties running around, and more girl on girl action.  But I confess I haven’t seen a match.  

Then there’s beach volleyball where female players are required to wear bikinis while the men play in shorts and t-shirts.   Although often criticized the dress code is accepted as it supposedly raises the profile of the game (for that I’d read encourages men to ogle women while they play professional sport).  Head of Fifa, Seb Blatter, has suggested that something similar (tighter shorts) would work for women’s football. 

This is the Seb Blatter who recently suggested that gay football fans considering travelling to Qatar to watch the World Cup in 2022, where homosexuality is illegal, should just refrain from having sex whilst abroad.  The celebration of female sex appeal in sport not only insults professional athletes male and female, demeans and dehumanizes women, but also excludes female and gay spectators. 

As with other areas of society the struggles of women intersects with that of sexuality, and occasionally broader questions on gender.  Last year South African runner Caster Semenya returned after a year’s absence from her sport.  A few hours before her World Championship 800 meter final the world’s media, was informed that after the race the then 18 year old would undergo gender testing.  This testing was not to determine malicious fraud of a man masquerading as a woman but to satisfy suggestions that she might not be, biologically, entirely female.  This raises many questions about what it means to be a real woman, and our fixed ideas of the gender dichotomy; male and female.    For Caster Semenya, her career may have been over due to a condition she was born with as natural as being born male or female.

Women in sport must prove their strength physically and mentally in their chosen field, whilst maintaining a sense of femininity.  To do otherwise would be to risk derision because they look ‘mannish’ or too masculine, or like a lesbian.  Perhaps this is why female athletes continue to pose for Maxim or Playboy; to prove they are real, sexy, heterosexual women- everything that sport demands of a woman. 

Perhaps it also explains why US Open tennis champ Kim Clijsters would want to be turned into a Barbie doll.  The doll itself seems an idealized version of Clijsters, her muscular legs have been thinned for example*, her naturally dark blonde hair lightened, and the fierce competitor has been reduced to a child’s toy.  And her heterosexuality is established by every woman’s perfect accessory; a child- her daughter Jada has also become a doll.  If even the most successful female athletes are being, in this case literally, reduce to objects it feels as though we have a long way to go to eradicate sexism in sport. 

There are some positive signs for the future; certainly public opinion does seem to condemn the attitudes of Gray and Keys.  But it seems a hollow victory to celebrate.   On the surface the expansion of other sports seem to increase the opportunities for women.  Cycling events in the next Olympics will have changed as they create parity for male and female competitors.  Although much of story was that the men’s events had been reduce as a result.  And women will be able to box in the 2012 Olympics.  Unfortunately, they will have to compete in one of only three weight categories meaning some will have to gain or lose 15lbs to compete, something no professional male boxer would ever consider. 

Women’s participation in sport remains woefully lower than men’s meaning they lose out on the fun and excitement of sporting events, the personal development and sense of achievement sport can bring, and of course exercise, a healthy body, and a healthier attitude towards their bodies.  Sport remains male dominated due to the way professional female athletes are dehumanized and judged on their looks not talent, while male sporting excellence steals all the headlines.  If, as a young girl, the only sports related women you see are in sexy photo shoots or as a glamorous WAG cheering on her partner there is little encouraging you to pick up a cricket bat.  Unless we challenge the sporting status quo we will not achieve the equality for men and women all sane people must seek, and we will lose so many opportunities to witness the excellence our sportswomen have to offer. 

*Just for the record, I DO NOT believe that thinner legs look more ideal than muscular legs, but Mattel apparently do.

1969 Soviet Union 10 kopeks stamp. Sergei Korolev.

Image via Wikipedia

“The United States is expressing its admiration, confusion and surprise” – October 1957 US newsreel

In 1938 Sergey Pavlovich Korolyov had been identified as an enemy of the Soviet State. A Trotskyite plotter who had conspired with other missile designers and technicians to overthrow socialism and derail the Russian path to progress. Of course, Sergey Pavolvich was not a spy, nor a traitor – he was the victim of a world in which truth and fiction were as translucent as the Volga.

19 years later he sat in the control bunker at the Kapustin Yar facility in the Astrakhan Oblast and watched as the R-7 rocket he had designed catapulted an aluminium-magnesium-titanium sphere, not much bigger than a football, beyond the stratosphere and into the great unknown.  Sputnik-1, the first man-made satellite put into orbit, announced itself like a bolt from the blue with an endless set of bleeps. Perhaps, Sergey Pavlovich had enquired, we could make it bleep a message in morse code? Something to broadcast the message of socialism to the entire world? No! the reply had come from the Soviet Ministry of Radiotechnical Industry, that would be much too difficult and time consuming. Not as difficult and time consuming as building an ICBM and launching a satellite into space, Korolyov could have been forgiven for thinking.

Nevertheless, a nation which 40 years previous had been an agrarian backwater had now overtaken the USA and not only forged ahead into the space age – it had created it from scratch. The Eisenhower administration, although it played down the significance of the Sputnik launch, was well aware that it had taken its eye off of the ball – and now that ball was circling hundreds of thousands of feet above their heads, taunting with each high pitched bleep. In the paranoid cold war atmosphere of the late 1950s the US had more reasons to worry about a Soviet lead in space than the loss of a few propaganda points. If the Russians could successfully launch a rocket into space with a separating payload then they could probably launch one at the New York or Washington with a thermonuclear warhead attached. General Le-May, the hot headed chief of US Strategic Air Command, had told everyone who would listen (and everyone that wouldn’t) throughout the 1950s that the Soviets had to be destroyed before they gained the capability to do the same to the United States. In the autumn of 1957 it appeared as if Le-May’s calls to action had passed their sell by date.

All of this was not lost on Soviet Premier Khrushchev. Nikita Sergeyavich may have been born in humble surroundings in the Ukraine, but he was enthusiastic about the scope for economic and technological progress under the planned economy. As the capitalist economies struggled with the contradictions Marx had identified, the socialist model would naturally overtake them. “I will wave as we go past” he famously said to Nixon at the American National Exhibition in Moscow. Space travel was then, for Khrushchev, the ultimate expression of the new world subsuming the old one. As long as the cold war continued, Nikita would require his rockets and Sergey Pavlovich (whose identity was swiftly made a state secret) would oblige in delivering them – for different reasons of course.

For the briefest of periods red plenty was on the horizon and a Soviet satellite was above it.

Dewsbury Market

Dewsbury Market

Read Part 1, Part 2 and Part 3

The town of Dewsbury has a population of 56,030, with the figure remaining steady over the last forty years. It sits on the trans-pennine rail link that travels between Newcastle and Manchester, a ten minute journey west takes citizens to Leeds, whilst to the East there is Huddersfield and, to the north, Bradford. Dewsbury’s prominent location on within the rail network had traditionally been acknowledged as an important tool to attract trade and commece. Those who dwelled outside the town centre in one of the town’s sub-districts would rarely have to venture more than a mile to pick up anything they needed. It’s a memory shared by many across the country who grew up during the early to mid-twentieth century.
The town was founded on its manufacture of heavy woollen materials and was very much the centre of the nation’s “shoddy” and fine “worsted” cloth industry. The hope and feeling was that this would continue to be the case and safeguard the future of Dewsbury. Forty years later, the onset of globalisation has well and truly put paid to this optimistic, yet perhaps understanable, prophecy. By 1968, a developing economy based around a number of new industrial fields would presumably steer towns like Dewsbury in the right direction. Predictably though, the international economic system within which the town, like every other in the western world, now resides uprooted the defining industries of the country’s manufacturing centres and planted the seeds where labour was cheap and workers were less unionised.

The trains which brought visitors to Dewsbury now take workers and shoppers out. One of the defining symbols of 21st century Dewsbury, and the various other satellite towns of Leeds, Huddersfield and Bradford are the mill-conversion flats dotted within a mile radius of its railway station. The premises where the men and women once toiled at the loom to cement Dewsbury’s reputation as one of the manufacturing capitals of Europe are now little more than sleeping quarters for white collar commuters.

The retail and leisure distractions of Huddersfield and Leeds would strangle the life out of the comparably meagre and humble offerings of Dewsbury. Most consider the final nail in the coffin within which Dewsbury as a retail destination now lies was hammered in by WalMart Stores, Inc. In 2002 it paid for the construction of an Asda supermarket which churns out clothes, televisions, CDs, DVDs, stationary, books, jewellry, mobile phones, home appliances and all manner of consumables at a price that the likes of Jack Senior’s sweet shop and Gerald Lee’s gent’s outfitter could not get anywhere near. The rhythm may be bleak but it’s the beat that the earners and spenders of Dewsbury all dance to.

The town is still famous for its market, with coach trips arriving from across the north of England for the second hand sellers on a Wednesday and almost 300 stalls which open on a Saturday. Major retailers like Marks & Spencer and Woolworths which were once considered part of the furniture in the town centre for decades have closed over the last couple of years along with a worrying amount of local retailers. Other household names including WH Smith and Argos do maintain a presence in the town centre against a retail backdrop which is, these days, dominated by discount stores, takeaway food outlets, cafes and the odd specialist hobby shop which fight through every month against the trend of dwindling trade.

Like many towns across the United Kingdom, much of the industrial, retail and residential regeneration has taken place on the outskirts. Matalan, JJB Sports, Next, Sainsbury’s and Halford’s occupy large units with ample car parking space whilst the aformentioned mill-conversion flats continue to sprout. Even further afield, on the border Dewsbury shares with Leeds, lies a recently built business park with over a dozen units occupied by national and international manufacturing and service corporations. Similar estates of a smaller scale have also sprung up on various plots of land dotted about the town previously occupied by the heavy woollen mills of the town’s heyday. It is these units along with Asda and the town’s biggest employer, Carlton Cards, which provide a large percentage of jobs in the town.

In the gap left by the shoddy and worsted cloth industry, there developed a new industry which today, despite not enjoying the same reputation as the woollen trade did, generates jobs and industry in the area. That field is bed manufacturing, a market spearheaded by the local Muslim population. Firms like Kozee Sleep and Highgate Beds have been established for over twenty years and are based in an area which has been aptly nicknamed “The Sleepy Valley”.

This trend of trade and commerce being pulled away from the town centre has been apparent for some years now, the latest example being the construction of a shopping park in Ravensthorpe dominated by national discount chains which target the demographic of low-income families inhabiting the surrounding community. As mentioned, this is a pattern recognisable across the UK but with Dewsbury being within striking distance of Huddersfield and Leeds, the challenges it faces as a retail destination are greater than most.

The Tetley Stadium - Home to Dewsbury Rams.

One of the more postive aspects of the town’s reputation comes in the form of its Rugby League tradition. In 1973, Dewsbury was the home of the best rugby league team in the country and, whilst the Rams, as they are now known, have yet to recapture this glory, the area remains a hotbed for the sport and a conveyer belt of talent churning out elite athletes and national stars. There are five well established clubs in the town, four of which have teams at almost every age group from seven years old upwards.

The town is divided into several regions. To the north there is Dewsbury Moor, Crackenedge and Staincliffe. To the east there is Eastborough, Chickenley, Shaw Cross and Hanging Heaton. South is Thornhill, Thornhill Lees, Savile Town and Whitley and west, Ravensthorpe, Dewsbury Moor, Westtown and Scout Hill. Most of the residents of Ravensthorpe and Savile Town live in the Victorian terraced houses built around the mills of industrial Dewsbury whereas the population of the other suburban districts live in a combination of those terraces, c1960s semi-detached homes and the council estates built in the post-WWII years.

There are four high schools in Dewsbury: Earlsheaton, St. John Fisher, Thornhill, Westborough and Birkdale. All of which, are non-selective, and attract a cross section of students from across the town. The latter two, by virtue their location, are attended by a high percentage of students of Asian origin. The percentage of students achieveing at least 5 A*-C GCSEs (including English and Maths) at each respective school is 42%, 39%, 34%, 28% and 20%e. These figures compare less than favourably with the national average of 47.6%.

Dewsbury is divided into three constituency regions: Dewsbury West, Dewsbury South and Dewsbury East. Dewsbury South and Dewsbury West are home to the majority of town’s Muslim population whilst Dewsbury East, somewhat isolated from the other residential districts is almost exclusively populated by the mostly religiously apathetic white Europeans.

Voter turnout at the last council elections in Dewsbury East was 40% (14th out of the 23 wards in Kirklees council area), In Dewsbury West it was 48% and 51% in Dewsbury East (The 2nd and highest voter turnout percentages overall). Dewsbury West is in Kirklees’ highest population density category (31.6 – 41.2 persons per hectare) whilst East and South are placed in the 2nd and 3rd categories, out of four, with 21.9 to 31.6 and 12.2 to 21.9 persons per hectare respectively.

Whilst unemployment figures are difficult to calculate, the percentage of citizens claiming job seekers allowance (based on the median figures of each designated category) for Dewsbury East, South and West are 2.25%, 3.2% and 4.1% respectively. Just over a third of citizens in Dewsbury West and South receive council tax benefit while just over a quarter do in Dewsbury East. This compares starkly with nearby Mirfield where the figure is just 13.9%.

Dewsbury’s infant mortality rate is more than double the national average, a statistic attributed to smoking and alcohol consumption whilst pregnant and the general ill health of the women carrying the baby. There are also links to this statistic with the conception of a child between first cousins. A child brought up in Dewsbury is also twice as likely, on average, to have rotten teeth as any other child in the country.

Politically, Dewsbury is hard to define. I have only ever lived to see a Labour MP representing the constituency of “Dewsbury and Mirfield”. Ann Taylor was in parliament from from 1987 to 2005 before Burnley born Shahid Malik won enough votes to become the area’s first Muslim MP. Dewsbury East, West and South are all represented by Labour councillors as well but the area is also recognised as a key region for the British National Party with Colin Auty elected councillor of Dewsbury East in 2006 before leaving the party two years later.

Revellers at the famed Dewsbury riot - started by the far right.

The ethnic and cultural make-up of the town has changed dramatically over the last few hundred years. In the early part of the nineteenth century, Dewsbury welcomed migrants from Ireland who came looking for work. They initially settled in the north west of the town before dispersing into the rest of the community over the next half century.

Later, during the 1950s, 60s and 70s, migrants from Southern Asia would arrive in the former industrial towns of England also looking for work. Like the Catholic Irish migrants who sought to create a microcosm of their homeland, the Pakistani, Indian and Bangladeshi Muslims, finding residence in the terraced houses of Ravensthorpe and Savile Town, would also bring aspects of their “old” life with them. Initially this took the humble form of a prayer mat in over crowded bedrooms but, as the Muslim community grew, it would lead to the foundation of mosques and madrassas, many of which exist in their original form today.

Tom Coates

Read a Religion and a Town Part 1 & Part 2

The issue of Islam in Dewsbury is one which inspires debate around every corner. The recurring presence of these two words, a religion and a town, alongside each other in national newspaper articles, blogs and political propaganda is testament to the significance the issue will play in the future. With incident comes opinion, analysis, new ideas and sometimes the re-enforcement of old ones.

Danny Lockwood was one of the founders of ‘The Press’, a newspaper which covers Dewsbury, Batley and the other districts sandwiched between Huddersfield, Leeds and Bradford. His weekly column ‘Ed Lines: Life in Black and White’ frequently addresses the role Islam plays in the town and indeed the country. In the 12/09/08 edition, Lockwood expresses his frustration at exceptions made for Muslims who “go to school looking like Zorro” in response to news that a local alopecia sufferer was told to remove his baseball cap by teachers. The guidelines an alopecia suffering student was made to adhere to and the wearing of the hijab by Muslim women are not related in any way but it is comparisons like this one that are made around the town by non-Muslims who are displeased with the “special treatment” local followers of Islam are said to receive.

The Hijab often provokes debate

The common theme with many of these opinions is that, conversely, the local non-Muslim British population are treated like second class citizens. When examples of religious dispensation are brought to light, the stories are often inter-laced with tales of the local white population suffering a perceived injustice – even if it isn’t necessarily related to, or the fault of, the religion in question, as seen above.

The wearing of the hijab, particularly in instances when only the eyes or less are visible, is probably, along with the town’s iconic Mosque minarets, one of the most recognised symbols of Islam on a local scale. MP for Dewsbury Shahid Malik advised Aisha Azmi, the hijab-wearing teaching assistant who was sacked, to simply “leave it alone and get on with life”. An acknowledgement by the Muslim politician perhaps, that the wearing of the veil can and will, on occasion, conflict with life amongst non-Muslims and that, in such instances, the needs of the many outweigh the customs of the few.

There are, considering the diversity of Dewsbury, very few examples of culture clashes of this nature. This can be explained, in part, by the isolated nature of the Muslim and non-Muslim communities. The concentration in population of both races is a result, according to many, of the ‘ghettoisation’ of several of the town’s sub-districts. Ghettoisation refers to the idea that social groups, particularly ethnic minorities, take residence in sub-dstricts as a result of social, religious or economic pressure. As identified, much of the Muslim population of Dewsbury live alongside each other in Savile Town, Ravensthorpe and parts of Thornhill.

Don Pryke, 51, is a local self-employed businessman who was brought up in Ravensthorpe, he recalls the initial years of Muslim settlement in his locality: “The general feeling was ‘blimey! who are these People? and why have they come to Ravensthorpe?’ “In the early days, the two communities never mixed or talked at all so one side’s knoweldge of the other came from within their own community.”

The council houses of Chickenley, Dewsbury Moor and Thornhill were built to accomodate the ‘baby-boom’ post-WWII generation but the “homes for heroes” scheme failed to foresee the demographic shift about to change the face of much of the nation. What resulted was Muslim families moving in to the cheapest houses available to them, local jornalist Danny Lockwood adds: “It’s normal for any migrant community to gather together for lots of understandable social, family and cultural reasons. People of any relgion are generally motivated by the same human needs. This is a social phenomenon, not a religious one.”

Carl Morphett is a member of Kirklees Unity, a group founded to oppose the BNP on a local level. He belives that there are more serious contributory factors: “Islamophobia, intolerance and ignorance on both sides of one another’s lifestyle and culture contribute to the trend of ghettoisation. With Islamophobia in particular on the rise, the pattern will continue, which can only be a bad thing.”

Yakub Sultan is a Muslim working part-time in Dewsbury and studying at the University of Huddersfield. The lifestyle of a typical university student, many would say, is not compatible with the lifestyle of a follower of Islam: “Religion very much plays a major part in my life but I don’t feel the two conflict with one another. This is because as a Muslim, my faith guides me through many of the choices I make.” It’s clear from what Yakub is saying, that the society he lives in presents few obstacles for him to overcome as a practicing Muslim: “I feel very comfortable as a Muslim in the area I live in, the common traits of Muslims and non-Muslims away from religion are becoming more similar making life for everyone easier”. It is the common ground shared between the religiously devout and apathetic, those optimistic of true integration and co-operation believe, upon which we can lay the foundations of a truly diverse and peaceful community.

This is a view also held by the Bishop Anthony Robinson who has been the co-chairman of Kirklees Inter-Faith for over a decade: “Great strides have been made over the last five years between Christianity and Islam, based primarily on values the two religions share. “The Muslims of the local area need friends from across the community and the religious buildings of both faiths are shared for community projects” Kirklees Inter-faith, although independent from Kirklees council, serves as a key component of the area’s strategy to build bridges between religions. The group meets and discusses issues concerning all religions and organises projects involving local mosques, churches and synagogues. Kaushar Tai was the founding chairman of the group: “We are a voluntary organisation which promotes harmony between faiths. One idea which was put into practice was to take religious learning out of the classroom and into the places of worship themselves”.

We have seen evidence that compatibility, despite the cohesive setbacks the town endures, is possible and already a reality for many. But what can Dewsbury, as a diverse town, do to develop this ideal? We have already examined the isolated nature of Muslim and non-Muslim communities and what led to their being but, like the Irish migrants of over a century ago, what hope is there of future generations of communities living in harmony with each other?

Kirklees Unity’s Carl Morphett suggests: “As I grew older and wiser I realised that the local Asians were no different from me. I am keen to learn about cultures other than my own and believe that the school curriculum should encourage this from an early age” The idea that progress relies heavily upon knowledge of the beliefs of one another is shared by local businessman Don Prkye, who despite rating his current knowledge of Islam as ‘4/10′, has a desire to learn more: “Incidents like 9/11 can create a lot of distrust between communities which often manifests itself as resentment on a local level. “A Q&A column in the local newspapers, for example, would be of interest to many people and would help those outside the Muslim community learn more about their neighbours.”

Local journalist Danny Lockwood is optimistic about the future: “History shows us that in time these communities disperse gradually into the mainstream and there is already evidence of that happening in Dewsbury. “Progress is not helped though by international political pressure between Islam and western democracies.”

Clearly, the international turmoil Muslims around the world find themselves in, not least of all its conflict with the west, do little for towns like Dewsbury. But what of the obstacles that exist on a local level? Are there people in the town who don’t want multi-culturalism or integration? A song entitled “Savile Town: Where’s it Gone?”, penned by then-BNP candidate Colin Auty, alleges that the Asian sub-district is rife with drug dealers and paedophiles and decries the closure of churches, pubs and butchers in the area. Fellow BNP counillor Nick Cass defended these sentiments: “We make no apologies for this song as every word is true.”

The BNP’s popularity hinges on the level of conflict between religious communities. The closer Dewsbury gets to being a peaceful, religiously tolerant town, the less votes the party will receive. So, naturally, its in the interests of BNP members to associate society’s ills with the ethnic minority community, usually without any consideration of contributory factors or statistics. If one of the mainstream parties expresses its displeasure at the lack of something, it will look at how to correct the problem. In the case of the British National Party however, its displeasure at the alleged lack of religious understanding is supplemented not by a desire to build bridges between faiths, but to heighten tension at every opportunity. Dewsbury is home to the highest BNP vote in the country, a sign perhaps that not everyone within the town is comfortable with the idea of sharing their neighbourhoods with, or eager to learn about, other races, religions and cultures.

Tom Coates

Read A Religion And A Town – Pt 1

Liverpudlian solicitor W.H.Quilliam converted to Islam in 1887 after returning from a trip to Morocco. He was made Shaykh al-Islam for the United Kingdom by the Sultan of the Ottoman empire and converted roughly 150 British people to the faith. There is earlier evidence of an Islamic presence in the UK and whilst this particular chapter of history is not directly linked to the Muslims of Dewsbury, I feel it’s important to recognise that the migrancy trend of the mid-twentieth century is not the first example of South Asian culture in England.

WH Quilliam

The vast majority of the Muslims who arrived in Dewsbury in the 1950s, 60s and 70s were Sunni Muslims. The Deobandi-Tablighi Muslims arrived from the Punjabi region of India, whilst the Barelwi are originally from Pakistan and Bangladesh. The differences between the two groups within Islam are established but largely irrelevant in the modern day and based primarily on geography. Much of the modern symptoms of confict between the two sides is little more than ‘mud slinging’ between elder members, passing judgement on the cultural traits and habits of each other.

The first significant example of tension between the Muslim and non-Muslim communities came in 1978. A decaying building had been purchased by a group of local Muslims and converted in to a Mosque. Opposite the Dar Ul Ilm, however, stood The Albion, a well established pub. One early evening, a pig’s head was thrown through the mosque door and into the presence of the people assembled inside. ‘The siege of the Albion’ was the first manifestation of the underlying tension and resentment felt by the indigenous population towards their newly settled neighbours. What followed was a confrontation between the two sides. On one was alcohol fuelled disdain and on the other, a religion just finding its feet. The aftermath would see a slight swell in support for the National Front but also resistance to this act in the form of a protest organised by students, both Muslim and non-Muslim, at Dewsbury College.

The jobs that the Muslims did during the 60s, 70s and 80s a were predominantly the ones that were not being filled by the indigenous population. Many left skilled employment in their home countries to take up unskilled jobs in the UK. Clearly, the citizens of the south Asia saw a greater quality of life for their families and children in western Europe. Muslims practicing their religion at this time did so the humble form of a prayer mat in their bedrooms. As the number of Muslims in Dewsbury grew though, there was enough concentrated support in areas like Savile Town and Ravensthorpe for the first Mosques to be built. As we have seen, the first attempt at this was met with hostility but that didn’t alter the fact that progress had been made and the followers of Islam in Dewsbury had somewhere to congrergate and practice their faith.

In 1982, the Markazi Mosque was established in Savile Town. It can accommodate 4,000 worshippers and is the European headquarters for the Islamic organisation Tablighi Jamaat, a movement centred around the Deobandi tradition. Coverage of the organisation in the national press alleges links with terrorism and, in particular, Wahabism (the central Islamic ideology of Saudi Arabia) which is acknowledged by British Muslims and non-Muslims alike as a dangerous and warped interpretation of the Muslim faith. The organisation defends against accusations of this nature, stating that it is a spiritual organisation with the aim of uniting Muslims around the world spiritually.

1987 saw a further sign of defiance from the white European population against what they saw as ‘enforced multi-racialism’. During the school summer holidays of that year, 26 children were withdrawn from the application process for their new school. Their parents refusing to allow their children to attend a school whose intake was now overwhelmingly Muslim. What resulted was the 26 kids at the centre of the row receiving school lessons in a local pub, ironically now a madrassa, from sympathetic retired teachers.

The accusation leveled at the council from the parents was that they were attempting to artificially redress the racial imbalance in the school. This was denied strongly by the council. The fact of the matter was, however, that the parents of these children weren’t prepared to send their children to a school attended by a large percentage of Muslims.

By now, the presence of Islam in Dewsbury was apparent not only by the Muslim people but also by the specialist shops, tcurry houses, madrassas and mosques that had sprung up around the town. Of these shops, the most prominent was, and still is, Mullaco. Salim Mulla opened his first shop in Savile Town in 1981, it sold halal meat and other asian products that the local Muslim population found hard to come by in England.

The shop still exists today but the bulk of the operation has been moved to a large stock warehouse and a newly opened Supermarket in Thornhill Lees. The sign on the building, previously occupied by Kwik Save proudly states “Mullaco of Dewsbury” and Mulla’s business competes admirably with nearby supermarket giants Asda, Lidl, Netto, Tesco and Sainsbury. Mullaco’s strength is in the specialist product it offers but, where previously it attracted a clientele made up primarily of local Muslims, much of it’s custom now comes in the form of curry fanatics, both Muslim and non-Muslim from all over West Yorkshire.

Of course, there are dozens of other shops and mini-markets around Dewsbury run by Muslims selling anything from Carling lager and con-doms to parathas and henna. One of the larger companies operating here is Appna. Appna is not a local firm but sells a similar range of asian ingredients and foods from a large retail unit on the outskirts of the town centre. Many of the businesses operating within the town centre and on the market are run by Muslims – these include shops selling traditional clothing, Bollywood DVDs, jewelery, gifts and western fashion.

The entrepreneurship of the Asian shopkeepers led to a fundamental shift in how the neighbourhood store was run. For the first time, local shops, albeit with reduced hours, would remain open on a Sunday. The view held by the English shopkeepers was that Sunday is traditionally a day of rest but this a sentiment not recognised by followers of Islam. Nevertheless, the non-Muslims of Dewsbury and indeed the rest of the country took advantage of the stores’ extended opening hours and these days the practice of opening for long hours and on Sundays has been adopted by shops, large and small, around the UK.

In 1989, what is remembered by some as a race riot took place in Dewsbury. The confrontation was a result of a clash between Asian youths and BNP supporters. The BNP had organised a “rights for whites” march and attempted to continue activity in Savile Town, well aware of the fact that Savile Town was a predominantly Asian community. There were met by Asian youths and the violent conflict that followed was dealt with by Police.

As the Islamic population of Dewsbury grew, the ethnic make-up of some of Dewsbury’s sub-districts began to change. The overwhelming majority of Muslims arriving in the town found homes in close proximity to one another. This resulted in Savile Town becoming an area where over 95% of the residents are Muslim. High concentrations of Muslim households also appear in parts of Thornhill and Ravensthorpe.

The decline of employment in the mills, and of the mills themselves, meant that it was less of a necessity for the people of Dewsbury to live in the ageing, cramped neighbourhoods built originally for workers. This mass upheaval left homes empty and, with council houses unavailable to migrants, the white working class community was gradually replaced by the Muslim community. The houses the Muslims moved into were cheap and, due to their close proximity with one another, a new community was quickly established.

Islam was slowly developing a presence in Dewsbury. internationally however, the religion was becoming entrenched in a battle between the oil rich states of the middle east and the neo-imperialist west, this conflict landed on the town’s doorstep on July 7th 2005, when Mohammed Siddique Kahn, who lived and worked in the town, led a group of 4 radicalised Muslims in an attack on a London underground train and a bus in an act of terrorism, blowing themselves up and killing 52. Naturally, an incident of this magnitude shocked the world and many in Dewsbury who’d worked hard to bring communities together were fearful of the impact it would have on relationships between Muslims and non-Muslims in the town. The men who carried out these atrocities claimed to be acting on behalf of Islam as well as in protest against “Injustices perpetrated by the British against Muslims across the world”. Kahn, a “quiet” teaching assistant in Thornhill left behind him a wife and child who were forced into hiding following these events*.

Later that year, in November, news broke of the sale and free availability of DVDs and video cassettes promoting terrorism and opposing integration outside the Markazi Mosque – a story which put Dewsbury in the national news again. Thankfully, vigilant residents, who purchased the offending material under the impression it featured prayer citations, informed the police.

Less than 12 months later though, the town became the home of the youngest ever terrorist suspect. Hammaad Munshi, then 16, was returning home following a GCSE exam when he was arrested on suspicion of posessing material linked with an online terrorist network. It emerged that Munshi, whose grandfather is one of the town’s religious leaders, had been groomed by two other men, both 21 and of Bradford, Aaabid Kahn and Sultan Muhammad. All three men were sentenced to imprisonment.

2006 saw teaching assistant Aisha Azmi sacked from her job at Headfield Church of England School for refusing to remove her veil. This was a story that captured the attention of the country and the name ‘Dewsbury’ was once again on the lips of every journalist in England. The school claimed that, whilst ever she wore the veil, which left only her eyes visible, the children could not understand her. The decision went to the Employment Appeals Tribunal which found in favour of the school and Kirklees council, albeit with Ms. Azmi receiving “victimisation” compensation of £1,100, in what many consider to be a “trade-off” to end the saga quickly.

'The Press' - at it again.

By now the media, and particularly newspapers like the Daily Mail and Express, saw Dewsbury as a reservoir filled with newspaper selling stories of religious turbulence and Islamic ‘colonisation’. When the big stories dried up however, efforts were made to find controversy at any cost. This would ultimately result in a story claiming that NHS nurses were being forced to pander to the wishes of Muslim patients and carry out duties including providing fresh bathing water and turning beds towards Makkah five times a day. The story, carried in the Daily Express, was challenged by Dewsbury MP Shahid Malik and it emerged that the wishes of Muslims were only fulfilled if they were terminally ill and close to death.

Another example came earlier that year, a story also published in the Daily Express, this time expressing its outrage at a Sharia Court operating “above British law” in Dewsbury. The article told of the “wail of the Mosque signalling the end of British justice”. The ‘court’ is based at a former pub, which perhaps helped to fan the flames of sensationalism even more furiously. The reality of the matter was, and remains, that the Sharee council which operated from within the building welcomed local Muslims who wished to settle civil disputes such as martial seperation, child custody issues and other civil squabbles in a manner morally compliant with Islam. It has no jurisdiction over British law and instead provides an alternative to often lengthy and expensive court battles. Despite there being very little factual substance to these stories, the influence they can have on non-Muslims living amongst or alongside Muslims and, subsequently, the detrimental effect they have on community cohesion should not be overlooked.

As stated, the MP for Dewsbury and Mirfield is Burnley born Muslim Shahid Malik, a member of the Labour party. He was elected representative of the constituency in 2005 with 41% of the vote. As we have seen, Mr. Malik has been quick to defend the town when it has received the wrong sort of media attention but has himself attracted negative media attention, particularly from local newspaper ‘The Press’, the MP even took the newspaper to court in 2005 over letters the paper published which alleged that one of his campaign team had racially intimidated a rival election candidate. The case was settled out of court but Malik’s rough ride with the that particular newspaper continues. Shahid is also the Under Secretary of State in the Ministry of Justice making him the first Muslim to be made a minister under any British government.

Malik’s closest rival for the Dewsbury seat in the general election of four years ago was Sayeeda Warsi. Despite missing out by 12% of the vote, Warsi has since risen through the ranks of the Conservative party to become Shadow Minister for Community Cohesion. Sayeeda was born and brought up in Dewsbury, attending Birkdale High School, and was the first Muslim woman selected to represent the Conservative party in a parliamentary election. In 2007, she was made a working a peer, becoming Baroness Sayeeda Warsi of Dewsbury as well as the youngest member of the House of Lords.

Tom Coates

A Religion And A Town. Pt1 – A Shoddy Town

Posted: August 11, 2010 by ifyoutoleratethis45 in Culture and Society, History

Dewsbury is a town which stands at the intersection of many of the issues which dominate the cultural landscape of Europe in the 21st century. It is no stranger to the hysteria raised over Islamic Fundamentalism and immigration, nor to the growth of the racialist far right . In four articles Tom Coates explores the religious, political and economic contours of this supposedly divided town and comes to a conclusion which is at odds with the two-dimensional image often portrayed by the media. – J Chisem

Dewsbury is a changing town, it is changing as I write this and will continue to for many years to come. The migration, settlement and integration of a religion is a long process, particularly when it is happening against a backdrop of international political unrest and local misunderstanding.

The actions of a few on July 7th and September 11th damaged the name of Islam. In many aspects, the religion is still recovering from the abhorrent actions of Islamic fundamentalists who claimed to be acting on behalf of the people it, instead, would make life very difficult for. These atrocities provided ammunition for the right wing who have made enemies of moderate Muslims around the UK and in Dewsbury and, in doing so, fanned the flames of racism.

Dewsbury is not without problems. It struggles to find an identity much the same way as the Muslims who live in the town do. Whilst followers of Islam fight against racism and misrepresentation, Dewsbury struggles to answer the questions posed to it by 21st century capitalism.

Muslims and non-Muslims may live in isolated communities at the moment but share a myriad common values, some of which they’re not yet aware of. We come together in the workplace without issue, laugh at the same things and express anger at the same things. Over the last ten years, the only acts of segregation have been perpetrated by extremist minorities on either side. On one we have radicalised Islam and, on the other, racism and hate politics. It is impossible for one of the two to dominate and the other to fade into obscurity – the more powerful one side becomes, the stronger the resistance will be from the other – the BNP, for example, will categorise Muslims as stubborn colonisers the same way they themselves are often categorised as a neo-Nazi party.

What is not up for debate, however, is that Dewsbury has gradually become a multi-cultural town with symbols of its recent Islamic influence apparent to any visitor. Often overlooked, however, is that beginning in the 1980s, aside from south Asian influence, the hallmarks of a town situated within a global market have become apparent. American companies WalMart (Asda), Clinton Cards, McDonalds, Subway and KFC all have bases in the town. Danish discount chain Netto opened a purpose built store in 2008 and German supermarket Lidl stands 200 yards from the train station. Electrical retailer Comet stocks televisions and electrical equipment made in China and Japan and Australian and Belgian beer flows from the taps of Dewsbury’s pubs. Italian and Chinese takeaways line streets across the town, family run Woodkirk garage sells French cars and Cook Islanders play for the town’s rugby team. The examples are poignant and numerous but this international dimension to the town is often missed.

Those critical of the South Asian influence over the town speak of an erosion of British values and culture whilst failing to recognise that the cultural shift commonly associated with Pakistan, India, Bangladesh and Islam only tells half of Dewsbury’s story as, fundamentally, a cog within the global machine. It is a story told in towns and cities up and down the country and a trend that shows no signs of deceleration.

Islam and the people who follow it have made several significant contributions to Dewsbury making it a town of ‘firsts’ for proud British Muslims. It is incredible, and perhaps crucial, though that it is the same town considered by many to be the UK’s capital for Muslim terrorism and right wing extremism. It is because of this that the original question remains unanswered. Dewsbury is in a state of limbo, and will continue to be, for as long as the militant wings of the two communities are active. It is up to the majority of Muslims and non-Muslims living in the town who seek peaceful co-existence to realise their common goal by rejecting the poisonous elements, on their own sides, which stand in the way of unity.

Tom Coates